Conditions Extrêmes et Matériaux : Haute Température et Irradiation

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Mykola Ialovega, Elodie Bernard, Marie-France Barthe, Régis Bisson, Andrea Campos, Martiane Cabie, Thomas Neisius, Ryuichi Sakamoto, Arkadi Kreter, Christian Grisolia, Thierry Angot and Celine Martin, 'Helium-induced morphology evolution in tungsten under thermal treatment', Nuclear Fusion 62 126022 (2022) doi:10.1088/1741-4326/ac94e3

Surface and near-surface morphology evolution of helium-irradiated tungsten due to thermal cycling up to the ITER-relevant temperature of 1350 K was studied using electron microscopy and positron annihilation spectroscopy techniques. Holes at the surface and bubbles in the near-surface of recrystallized polycrystalline tungsten samples were created by 75 eV helium plasma irradiation with the fluence of 3 × 10 23 He m−2 at the surface temperature of 1073 K. Subsequent annealing experiments were combined with a detailed electron microscopy analysis to investigate the shape and density changes of holes and helium bubbles with respect to grain orientation. We show that the initially circular holes and round bubbles became faceted upon heating with 1 K s−1 ramp up to 870 K. Annealing cycles up to 1350 K induced resulted in bubbles removal in the first 5 nm below the surface and surface smoothing. Electron energy loss spectroscopy measurements allowed estimation of helium gas density and pressure inside bubbles. Positron annihilation spectroscopy allowed to investigate the nature of defects and their evolution in the helium-irradiated tungsten with thermal cycling.