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N.Poirot, M.Gabard, M.Boufnichel, R.Omnée, E.Raymundo-Piñero, 'Sustainable Approach for the Development of TiO2-Based 3D Electrodes for Microsupercapacitors', Batteries 9 258 (2023) doi:10.3390/batteries9050258

This study reports a sustainable approach for developing electrodes for microsupercapacitors. This approach includes the synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles via a green sol–gel method and the deposition of thin films of that electrochemically active material on three-dimensional (3D) Si substrates with a high area enlargement factor (AEF) via a simple, fast, and inexpensive spin-coating pathway. The thickness of the film was first optimized via its deposition over two-dimensional (2D) substrates to achieve high capacitances to provide high energy density but also to deliver a good rate capability to ensure the power density required for a supercapacitor device. A film thickness of ~120 nm realizes the best compromise between the electronic/ionic conductivity and capacitance in a supercapacitor device. Such layers of TiO2 were successfully coated onto 3D microstructured substrates with different architectures, such as trenches and pillars, and different aspect ratios. The spin-coating-based route developed here has been established to be superior as, on the one hand, a conformal deposition can be achieved over high AEF subtracts, and on the other hand, the 3D electrodes present higher surface capacitances than those obtained using other deposition techniques. The rate capability and appreciable cyclability ensure a reliable supercapacitor behavior.